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Expert review

Looking back into the future: desirudin in acute coronary syndromes and coronary stenting

1. Department of Cardiac Intensive Care and Interventional Cardiology, Hartcentrum Hasselt, Hasselt, Belgium; 2. Cardiovascular Institute, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 3. Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a highly effective modality for the management of acute coronary syndromes, it can potentiate the existing prothrombotic state around lesion areas and lead to ischaemic complications. Adjunctive pharmacologic treatment with heparin reduces the risk of ischaemic events, but the utility of heparin is limited by its unpredictable pharmacodynamic effects and its inability to modulate fibrin-bound thrombin. Additionally, a potential risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is associated with heparin use. Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) have emerged as potential alternatives to heparin in patients undergoing PCI. Bivalirudin is a DTI indicated for use in PCI. Results from various studies have suggested clinical benefit associated with the use of bivalirudin, driven primarily by the reduction in bleeding risks compared with the standard treatment regimens. Of concern, however, is a significant increase in acute stent thrombosis with bivalirudin monotherapy compared with heparin plus GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors following primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Desirudin is a highly potent DTI with greater binding affinity than bivalirudin for thrombin. This report provides a comparative overview of the pharmacology and clinical utility of desirudin and bivalirudin in the setting of PCI.

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