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Clinical research

Does the site of bleeding matter? A stratified analysis on location of TIMI-graded bleedings and their impact on 12-month outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

Aims: While bleeding in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is known to be associated with poor outcomes, the differential prognostic impact of access-site related versus non access-site related bleedings is unknown. We aimed to assess the relative impact of access-site related bleeding, as compared to non access-site related, on 12-month clinical outcome in patients undergoing intervention for STEMI.

Methods and results: Thirty-day bleeding endpoints, stratified into access-site versus non access-site, were examined according to the TIMI scale in 744 patients with STEMI enrolled in the MULTISTRATEGY trial. TIMI major or minor bleeding complications occurred in 56 (7.5%) patients within 30 days, 46% had an access-site related bleed and 34% required blood transfusion. Bleeding severity and the need for transfusion were equally distributed between site access- versus non-site access-related bleeds. After adjustment, patients with any TIMI rated bleed were more likely to die or develop recurrent MI within 12 months (HR 2.1 [95% CI: 1.13-3.8]; p=0.02). This ratio was entirely driven by non-site access-related bleeds (adjusted HR: 2.66 [95% CI: 1.21-5.8]; p=0.007), whereas site-access bleeds were not associated with worse outcomes (HR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.16-3.4]; p=0.70).

Conclusions: While bleeds of any TIMI severity within 30 days were independently associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes at 12 months, thus confirming previous analyses, this relationship was entirely driven in our study by non access-site related haemorrhagic events. Investigation on whether the site of bleeding complications may preferentially impact cardiovascular outcomes is warranted.

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