Aims: To verify feasibility and safety of bone marrow stem cells (BMC) mobilization in patients (pts) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to monitor the clinical effects of BMC mobilization in terms of myocardial perfusion and function.
Methods and results: Eight male pts (median age: 50.5 years) treated with a primary PTCA were enrolled. The mobilization regimen consisted of G-CSF 5 µg/kg/12 h from day 0 to day +2 and GM-CSF 2.5 µg/kg/24 h. All pts underwent coronary angiography, intracoronary doppler flow study, echocardiography, and nuclear thallium scan before treatment and at 6 months. All pts showed increased values of WBC and circulating CD34+ following cytokine administration. No patient died. All patients completed a 6-months follow-up: target lesion revascularization rate was 12,5%, target vessel revascularization rate was 37.5%, angiographic mean ejection fraction increased from 49.8±11.9 to 55.4±8.7 (p=NS), mean coronary flow reserve from 1.63±0.42 to 2.5±0.4 (p=0.001), mean Thallium uptake raised from 55.56±16.42% to 67.56±13.66% (p=0.01), and normally perfused segments from 16% to 52% (p=0.01).
Conclusion: Cytokine-induced BMC mobilization is feasible in AMI pts. Improvements of myocardial perfusion can be expected after PTCA associated with G-CSF and GM-CSF induced mobilization. Further studies are required to define the role of BMC-mobilization and the most effective cytokine combination.