State of the art: coronary angiography
In the early days of coronary angiography, the precise quantification of luminal narrowing was challenging. The introduction of balloon angioplasty (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA]) by Andreas Grüntzig in 1977 was perhaps the greatest incentive to the development of quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). QCA has played a crucial role in evaluating interventional techniques and assessing the results of new technologies.
Coronary angiography has evolved continuously over the past decades. The understanding of the fractal geometry in the coronary tree coupled with the incremental information coming from intracoronary imaging, and the simulation of physiologic parameters have further refined the technique. This manuscript aims to review the history and developments in the field of coronary angiography. The current clinical applications including the recent advent of angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) are detailed and future perspectives of coronary angiography are discussed.
Carlos Collet, Maik J. Grundeken, Taku Asano, Yoshinobu Onuma, William Wijns and Patrick W. Serruys