Bioprosthetic surgical aortic valve (SAV) construction

TAVI within failing surgical aortic bioprostheses

Two types of prosthetic valves are used for heart valve replacement surgery - mechanical or bioprosthetic. Mechanical valves have long-term durability, but require lifelong anticoagulation, with the risk of thrombosis, thromboembolism, or spontaneous bleeding and are therefore less than ideal, particularly in younger patients, pregnant patients, or patients in the developing world where close monitoring is difficult to ensure.

Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) are constructed from porcine heart valves or bovine pericardium preserved with glutaraldehyde. Patients with BHVs do not require anticoagulation, but structural valve deterioration may occur, particularly in younger patients, necessitating replacement, where it is associated with a higher risk of mortality.